New Elektor Book: Arduino- and Raspberry Pi-Based PID Controllers

Elektor’s New Book: PID Controllers Based on Arduino and Raspberry Pi

PID control is a commonly used control algorithm. Elektor’s new book is an excellent resource for anyone looking to use a Raspberry Pi 4 or Arduino Uno in PID-based automation applications.

Industrial and commercial process control is a very important area of ​​automatic control engineering. Basically, two types of process control control algorithms are used: on/off control and proportional integral derivative (PID) control. Both control algorithms use feedback where the response of the factory output is compared to the desired value and action is taken to reduce the error between the two.

In simple on/off control applications, full power is applied to the plant if the fault is positive, otherwise the power will be disconnected. The on/off control has many drawbacks. First, the error is never zero and as a result precise factory control is not possible. For example, in an ON/OFF temperature control, the measured temperature shows an oscillatory behavior and can be several degrees higher or lower than the desired value. ON / OFF control. Secondly, it is very difficult to control plants with time delay using on/off type control. Third, the on/off control usually depends on the use of a relay and the relay must be switched several times thus shortening its life.

What are PID controllers?

PID control It is the most widely used control algorithm, widely used in industrial, practical and commercial applications, and has been universally accepted as the easiest and perhaps the best control algorithm, resulting in precise plant control. The popularity and wide use of PID controllers can be attributed partly to their robust performance in a wide range of process control applications and partly to their simplicity in use, allowing engineers to operate and tune them in a simple and straightforward manner. As the name suggests, the PID algorithm consists of three basic parameters; Proportional, integral, and variable derivation for optimum response.

New book release

new book Handy PID-based digital control with Raspberry Pi and Arduino Uno, on using the Raspberry Pi 4 and the Arduino Uno in PID-based automation applications. The book begins with the basic theory of both continuous and intermittent feedback control systems. Time responses for the first and second order systems are presented in detail. Fully working and tested projects are given to control real systems using PID control algorithms. The open step temporal response, the various methods for tuning PID parameters, and the closed loop temporal response of the developed systems are presented in the book, along with block diagrams, circuit diagrams, PID control algorithms, complete software lists and program descriptions for the Raspberry Pi and Arduino Uno.

Example of a PID controller

A project from the book is presented below. It is used to control the water level in the tank with a Raspberry Pi 4, an ultrasonic sensor, a tank, a tank, a submersible pump, a MOSFET switch, and a power supply. The time response of the output step of the system using the PID controller is shown in the diagram, where it was required to set the water level at 10 centimeters.

PID controller project overview

Project Items with PID Controller

System output step time response using PID Contorllers
The output step time response of the system using the PID controller.

The projects in the book should study the basic theory and applications of PID controllers and these projects can be easily modified by readers for other controller applications. Interested readers can further their knowledge by searching the internet, where there are many tutorials, application notes, projects and papers on PID controllers.

book covers the following topics:

  • Open-loop and closed-loop control systems
  • Analog and digital sensors
  • Transfer functions and continuous time systems
  • First-order and second-order system time responses
  • discrete time digital systems
  • Continuous time PID controllers
  • split time PID controllers
  • Temperature control ON-OFF with Raspberry Pi and Arduino Uno
  • PID Temperature Control with Raspberry Pi and Arduino Uno
  • PID DC Motor Control with Raspberry Pi and Arduino Uno
  • PID water level control with Raspberry Pi and Arduino

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